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Maasai Harmonial Mission: To improve the livelihoods and health of the impoverished pastoral people of Emburbul Village and to empower the girls and women of Emburbul to control their own reproduction, their own lives, and their own bodies.
Transition Earth Promotes human rights and nature's rights in a world of unsustainable population and economic growth and advocates for global systems change to enable the shift to a sustainable planet for all
Population Media Center Strives to improve the health and well-being of people around the world through the use of entertainment-education strategies, like serialized dramas on radio and television, in which characters evolve into role models for the audience for positive behavior change."
EngenderHealth For 65 years, Engenderhealth has improved the lives of men, women, and families through its work in family planning, maternal health, HIV, and AIDS, gender equality, and many other programs
Central Asia Institute Mission: To promote and support community-based education, especially for girls, in remote areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan. 'Three Cups of Tea' is the inspiring book about the founder of this organization
Sierra Club Global Population and Environment Program
Seeks to protect the global environment, preserve natural resources for future generations, and foster healthy communities by advancing sustainable development solutions by:
- promoting increased access to voluntary family planning and reproductive
health information and services
- advocating for women's and girls' basic rights, including health care, education, and economic opportunity
- raising public awareness of wasteful resource consumption in the context of social and economic equity
- empowering youth leaders
Center for Biological Diversity - Population and Sustainability "Through the empowerment of women, education of all people, universal access to birth control, and a societal commitment to ensuring that all species are given a chance to live and thrive, we can reduce our own population to an ecologically sustainable level. This will decrease human poverty and crowding, increase our standard of living, and sustain the lives of plants, animals, and ecosystems everywhere." .... Follow the link to a beautiful presentation on Overpopulation.
Global Footprint Network Our mission is to promote a sustainable economy by advancing the Ecological Footprint, a measurement tool that makes the reality of planetary limits relevant to decision-makers.
WOA!s Population Impacts and Solutions (Youtube playlist) The consequnces of overpopulation could be catastrophic, and resources are already being seriously depleted, but if we spend more money on the various and already successful programs for education and voluntary family planning, we have a good chance to soften the damage.
Our Origins Are Our Destiny Bob Walker of Population Institute discusses the origins of population growth and its implications for the future, covering social change, scarcity, and environmentalism along the way.
Population Media Center: Power of Stories Population Media Center (PMC) works worldwide using entertainment-education for social change. PMCs programs encourage positive behavior change among the audience.
Warren Buffett: We Only Have One Planet Terre Blair interviewing an extraordinary group of leaders to find solutions to some of the most urgent challenges facing humanity: global climate change, financial mayhem, nuclear attacks, cyber threats, political paralysis (and population). Here is an excerpt with Warren Buffett, Ted Turner, the Dalai Lama and Thomas Friedman.
When Abortion was Illegal: Untold Stories (1992) This Academy Award-nominated film features compelling first person accounts which reveal the physical, legal, and emotional consequences during the era when abortion was a criminal act.
Saving Lives by Saving Trees to the rainforest and to the villagers who lived within it. Today, the clinic she founded provides affordable healthcare for the communities of Gunung Palung, and has not just improved the lives of residents, but also introduced alternative income sources and dramatically reduced illegal logging of the rainforest.
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Note: not all articles align with WOA!s position
The Cost of Child Marriage Today, roughly one in five girls worldwide is married or in an informal union before they turn 18, and most of these girls will become mothers before they reach adulthood. In Niger, which has the world's highest rate of child marriage, 76% of girls are married before they can vote. Ending the practice of child marriage would save billions of dollars in annual welfare expenditures, resulting in global savings of more than $4 trillion by 2030.
What Happens When Abortion is Banned? In Brazil, where abortion is all but banned, experts estimate there are about a million illegal abortions each year; around half of them are induced using abortion drugs. In the 45 years since Roe v. Wade legalized abortion, states have enacted more than 1,200 anti-abortion laws. Half of the abortions in the United States take place among women below the federal poverty line.
Trump's Ban on Global Abortion Funding Has Led to More Abortions Trump's policy slashes an estimated $8.8 billion in US global health assistance -- funding that applies not only to family planning, as it has previously, but extends to prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, infectious diseases, and even hygiene programs. When the Mexico City policy was in place, women were up to 2.73 times more likely to get abortions than women in countries where the policy was not applied.
How Population and Poverty Are Linked World food production has increased from about 500-600 million tonnes (mt) in 1960-61 to 2,600 mt in 2017-18. The carbon emissions in the atmosphere presently stand at about 380 ppm compared 280 ppm about a decade back and, at the current rate of emissions, the threshold limit of 550 ppm may be breached very soon.
Bursting at the Seams: Population Surge Pushing Housing Shortage to Extreme While the housing stock in NYC grew by about 8 % between 2000 and the end of 2016, the adult population of the city grew by almost 11 %, and adult-only households made up almost 71 % of all the households in the city in 2016. While median monthly rents have risen by about $300 since 2000, the median income of a renter household has only increased by $145 per month since 2000.
Fatal Floods in Eastern Africa May Mean Yet More Food Shortages Rainfall that's been twice the seasonal average in parts of eastern Africa has claimed almost 500 lives. In Kenya, more than 21,000 acres of crops have been destroyed, 20,000 animals swept away and irrigation systems damaged. In Rwanda, almost 5,000 hectares (12,355 acres) of crops have been lost and farming infrastructure destroyed.
4.3b People on Earth Don't Get Reproductive Health Access Some 200 million women worldwide in developing regions who want to avoid pregnancy are unable to use any modern contraception. Without adequate services, up to 25 million unsafe abortions take place every year. More than 350 million men and women end up needing treatment for sexually transmitted infections that could have been prevented.
Nigeria: Side Effects, Barrier to Family Planning In 2013, only 16 % of all women of reproductive age in Nigeria,15 to 49, were using any contraceptive method, and only 11 % were using a modern method-levels that remain virtually unchanged since 2008. In 2012, about one-fourth of Nigeria's 9.2 million pregnancies were unintended -a rate of 59 unintended pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 15 to 49. 56% of these unintended pregnancies ended in an induced abortion; 32 % ended in an unplanned birth and 12 % in a miscarriage.
US Birth Rate Lowest in 30 Years - the Overlooked Benefits The United States is home to over 326 million people, who on average, each emit 16.5 metric tons of carbon dioxide per year. Despite the average American consuming roughly the same amount of energy as 60 years ago, total emissions have increased by 180%.
Art Berman: Think Oil is Getting Expensive? You Ain't Seen Nothing Yet The price of oil has gone up 30% in The U.S. in the last year alone. The United States is right now producing more oil than it ever has in its history. We are a million barrels a day higher than the peak in 1970 .
How Germany is Defusing a Demographic Time Bomb Germany spent 45 billion euros ($53 billion) for child and youth programs in 2016, with most of that going to daycare facilities. Adding in other benefits such as maternity pay and child support, the total spent on families rises to roughly 90 billion euros. Despite the baby boom, there were nearly 119,000 more deaths than births in Germany in 2016. The population still rose by 346,000 people to 82.5 million, thanks to immigration.
Faith in Family Planning: Healthy Timing and Spacing of Pregnancies For the mother, delaying first pregnancy until the age of 18 and increasing space between pregnancies is key to positive health outcomes.
From Burkina to Zimbabwe, U.S. Aid Cuts Squeeze Family Planning Services MSI and the International Planned Parenthood Federation are among only four to reject the conditions of the Trump Administration order that bans funding to any foreign NGO carrying out or offering advice on abortions anywhere. USAID says 733 other NGOS still receive funding. But in Africa, MSI and IPPF are the two largest NGO providers of free contraception and family planning advice.
Slowing Population Growth Humanely: Larcs Reduce Abortions, Poverty -and Up Savings Unintended pregnancies comprise roughly half of all human pregnancies worldwide, and roughly 45 % of all U.S. pregnancies, resulting in a significant number of births. The main driver behind dramatically declining teen pregnancy rates over recent decades is more and better contraceptive use. U.S. family planning yields seven saved dollars for every dollar spent.
Opinion: Half a Century On, Let's Make Family Planning a Reality for All More than 200 million women around the world who want to avoid pregnancy lack modern contraceptives, and more than 800 women die daily from pregnancy and childbirth-related complications. Every additional $1 invested in family planning can save governments $2.20 for the cost of pregnancy-related care. If women participated in the economy identically to men, it would add $28 trillion to global gross domestic product by 2025 - an increase of 26 %.
Spousal Communication, Key to Family Planning Success
As communication is key to a successful marriage, so it is with family planning uptake among couples. Conversely, lack of communication has often been linked to misunderstanding in relationships.
Family planning, otherwise known as contraception, refers to the diverse methods and techniques whereby couples can determine the number of children they want to have and when.
Trump Administration Move to Withdraw Family Planning Grants Would Impact 1m Low-income Californians The Trump administration acted Friday to bar taxpayer-funded family planning clinics from referring women for abortions. More than 1 million low-income Californians could see new barriers to reproductive care this proposal.
As Population Growth Slows, Populism Surges With the significant exceptions of the African continent and the less-than-half-a-percent of the planet's habitable surface covered by the world's 500 largest cities, the earth is today experiencing net population decline.
The Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program was on the Right Track, Now It's Being Dismantled Increased and improved use of contraception is driving the declining rate of pregnancy among 15-19 year olds in the United States. 70 % of adolescent pregnancies in U.S. occurs among 18-19 year olds.
Rain-sodden England Told to Use Less Water Or Face Drought England could run out of water by 2050 unless attitudes change and waste is cut. The agency said about 3 billion litres of water in England were wasted every day through leakages - the equivalent to that used by over 20 million people. The agency said about 3 billion litres of water in England were wasted every day through leakages - the equivalent to that used by over 20 million people..
Goodbye World: We've Passed the Carbon Tipping Point for Good We've officially pushed atmospheric carbon levels past their dreaded 400 parts per million. Due to climate change, The Nature Conservancy suggests one fourth of Earth's species could be on their way to extinction by 2050. By 2100, approximately 13 million people in the US are projected to lose their homes due to rising sea levels.
The Coming Collapse U.S.'s prison system has 25% of the world's prisoners, although the United States has only 5 % of the world's population. Wall Street banks have been handed $16 trillion in bailouts and other subsidies by the Federal Reserve and Congress at nearly zero % interest since the 2008 financial collapse. The ratio of CEO to worker pay now averages 339 to 1, with the highest gap approaching 5,000 to 1.
How India's Abortion Laws Are Trailing Society, Technology and the Young Single Women Having More Sex Of the 15.6 million abortions carried out in India in 2015, only 3.4 million (22 per cent) took place in health facilities.
There's No Such Thing as Sustainable Beef The average American's annual hamburger appetite adds up to 1,050 pounds of carbon dioxide equivalents (C02e) 2, 2.13 acres of habitat, 66,300 gallons of water and 1,530 pounds of manure. To gain a pound, a cow has to eat about 6 pounds of feed. Grass-fed beef requires about five times more water to produce than industrial beef.
Fact Check: was Planned Parenthood Started to 'control' the Black Population? In 2014, the Guttmacher Institute surveyed all known abortion providers, including Planned Parenthood clinics, in the U.S. (nearly 2,000) and found that 60 % are in majority-white neighborhoods. In 2013, 14 % of Planned Parenthood patients nationwide were black.
Chinese Women Delay Starting a Family The total fertility rate in China decreased from 2.9 in 1979 to 1.7 in 2004, with a rate of 1.3 in urban areas and just under 2.0 in rural areas. Nationwide, the average age for young women to get married is now 27.4, up from 26.4 in 2007. And in Shanghai last year, for the first time ever, was over 30.
India Needs to Grow at 10% for 30 Years to Meet Population's Demands: Amitabh Kant According to FICCI-Accenture study, by adopting circular business model, India could reap a reward of between USD 382 to USD 697 billion by 2030.
$19 Million From Usaid to Contribute to Egyptian Family Planning Program In November 2016, CAPMAS estimated Egypt's population to be 92 million, compared to 72 million in November 2006. In cooperation with USAID, Egypt's Ministry of Health and Population is to launch a $19 million Family Planning and Reproductive Health program.
Abortion is Not Murder Medical evidence tells us fetuses cannot live unsupported, even with a respirator before 21 weeks. Until at least 24 weeks, a fetus cannot feel anything like pain because they do not yet have the brain connections to do so. A 2015 study showed that approximately 95 % of women who had abortions claimed it was the right decision for them.
Farming, Deforestation and Over Population is Trashing the Earth, Global Survey Warns LAND degradation will unleash a mass migration of at least 50 million people by 2050 - as many as 700 million - unless humans stop depleting the life-giving resource, more than 100 scientists have warned. Already, land decay caused by unsustainable farming, mining, pollution, and city expansion is undermining the wellbeing of some 3.2 billion people - 40 % of the global population. By 2050, land degradation and climate change will reduce crop yields by 10 % globally - up to half in some regions.
Japan: Act on Daunting Demographic Challenge It's estimated that the Japan's population will fall by 16 % in 2045 from the 2015 level. These decline will be accompanied by a higher ratio of senior citizens aged 65 or older in the population, which is forecast to reach 36.8 % nationwide on average.
Recycling is Suffering From System Failure; It's Time for a System Redesign
We are sacrificing our oceans and filling our landfills in the name of convenience. It's time to pay the bill.
According to the Wall Street Journal, “The U.S. recycling industry is breaking down.” Bob Tita writes:
Husband Schools: Bringing Men Into Family Planning Over 137 Husbands Schools have been created in Niger's Zinder Region since 2004 by UNFPA. During the first nine months of 2013 in Maiki, approximately 1,700 women received prenatal consultations at the health center, a 95 % increase from 2012. An increase in rates of safe delivery, from approximately 12 % to nearly 30 % in one community and from 16 percent to over 32 percent in another between 2008 and 2009.
There Have Never Been So Few Children in Japan (at Least, Not Since They Started Counting) This is the 37th year in a row that the population of children in Japan has continued to drop. In 2017, about 941,000 Japanese children were born - the lowest number since the country started recording its births, in 1899 In countries with more than 40 million people, Japan is ranked the lowest out of 32 for its ratio of children to the overall population.
Undp: Pakistan Has Largest Youth Population in Country's History 64 % of Pakistan's total population is below the age of 30, and 29 % is between the ages of 15 and 29. Pakistan is the "second youngest in South Asian region after Afghanistan."
Extinction Vs. Collapse: Does it Matter? The atmosphere has proven more sensitive to GHG emissions than predicted by mainstream science, and we have a high chance of hitting 2°C of warming this century. The insect collapse - population declines of 75% to 80% have been seen in some areas - is something no one predicted would happen so fast, and portends an ecological sensitivity beyond our fears
What Genuine, No-bullshit Ambition on Climate Change Would Look Like Bumping ambition up from 2 to 1.5 degrees would prevent 150 million premature deaths through 2100, 90 million through reduced exposure to particulates, 60 million due to reduced ozone. IRENA's scenario reduces global energy-related emissions 90 % by 2050. Of that 90 %, 40 comes from energy efficiency.
U-M Professor, Student Work Together to Empower Sudanese Women
South Sudanese women have among the highest fertility rates and maternal death rates in the world, yet cultural norms still frown upon contraceptives—even to make pregnancy and birth safer for women.
In light of this paradox, University of Michigan researchers wanted to better understand these Sudanese women’s ideas about contraceptives and family planning in order to address the challenges to providing contraceptives and better child and maternal care.
Oil-rich Nigeria Turns to Renewable Energy as Population Booms Africa's most populous country needs more than 10 times its current electricity output to guarantee supply for its 198 million people - nearly half of whom have no access at all. Nigeria aims to generate 30 percent of its total energy from renewable sources by 2030. Oil and gas production account for around 35 % of Nigeria's gross domestic product and about 90 % of total exports revenue,
As Water Shortages Grow, 'day Zero' Becomes Everyday in India Nearly 163 million people among India's population of 1.3 billion - or more than one in 10 - lack access to clean water close to their home. Almost 600 million people in India are at high risk of being unable to continue relying on surface water. Water supply in India may fall 50 percent below demand by 2030.
Half the Coral in the Great Barrier Reef Has Died Since 2016 The Great Barrier Reef-which, at 1,400 miles long, is the longest and largest coral reef in the world-was blanketed by dangerously hot water in the summer of 2016. In the summer months of 2017, warm waters again struck the reef and triggered another bleaching event. Combined, the back-to-back bleaching events killed one in every two corals in the Great Barrier Reef. In the summer of 2015, more than 2 billion corals lived in the Great Barrier Reef. Half of them are now dead.
Alberto Fujimori: Peru Ex-president Faces Forced Sterilisation Charges Around 300,000 women had surgery as part of a government programme during Fujimori's 1990-2000 presidency. Over 2,000 people are believed to have filed lawsuits against the sterilisations. Official data states that 18 women died as a result of them.
There's a Uncovered Beltway Story Hiding in Plain Sight -- with Trillions of Dollars in Play About one in five U.S. jobs still pays a median income below the federal poverty line. Median household income is only up 5.3% since 2008 and remains well below where it was in 1998, if you adjust for inflation. Meanwhile, the top 1% of American earners saw their incomes go up by leaps and bounds since the Fed started manufacturing money -- to more than 40 times that of the bottom 90%.
Paul Hawken Speaks at Pepperdine Climate Conference
Environmentalist, entrepreneur, author and activist Paul Hawken spoke at Pepperdine University recently about his new book on solutions to global warming.
The Malibu Library Speaker Series along with Pepperdine University hosted Hawken Wednesday, April 11 at 7 p.m. in Elkins Auditorium. Introduced by Associate Professor of Religion Christopher Doran as a “prophet of hope,” Hawken discussed the language behind climate change and his most recent book, “Drawdown: The Most Comprehensive Plan Ever Proposed to Reverse Global Warming.” Hawken said during the event that his book was a response to the way global warming was being talked about.
A Reverse 'handmaid's Tale' is Just as Horrifying - Get the Facts Straight on Population Growth Demographers, indeed, estimate the population will decrease in the long run, after peaking around the year 2070.
What is the Optimal, Sustainable Population Size of Humans? Estimating the amount of energy to satisfy these human needs while keeping ecosystems and resources intact, Daily et al calculated the optimal population size in the vicinity of 1.5 - 2 billion people. If we wish to keep population at 7 billion, the per capita product must be radically reduced to $4.950, from the current $16.1007.
Pessimism on the Food Front The number of undernourished people in the world has been rising since 2014, reaching an estimated 815 million in 2016 and several billion suffer levels of serious micronutrient malnourishment. Global warming has been shown to reduce wheat production by 6% for each 1 °C increase.
Rapid Population Growth Greatest Threat to Africa's Peace and Security - Mahama It is estimated that nearly 60% of the world's growth will occur in Africa by the year 2050. Currently, more than 40% of Africa's population is under 15 years of age.
Animation: Global Population by Region From 1950 to 2100 According to the most recent projections by the United Nations, the global population will rise from 7.6 billion to 11.2 billion people by 2100. Africa is the only region that will still have high amounts of child births 30 years from now. It is expected between 2017-2050 that half of all global population growth will be in just nine countries (in this order): India, Nigeria, DRC, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Tanzania, United States, Uganda, and Indonesia.
Sindh Govt in Pursuit to Curb Population Surge 22% is the unmet need at the provincial level, it's the percentage of those married women who intend to space or limit childbearing but they do not have access to family planning services. In order to achieve 45% of Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) by 2020, Sindh requires to reach out to at least 9, 86,000 additional users (new) over the next two years.
World's Newest Great Ape Threatened by Chinese Dam The Tapanuli orangutan survives in northern Sumatra and it is already the most endangered great ape in the world; researchers estimate less than 800 individuals survive. Researchers say the 510 megawatt dam will directly impact around 10-20% of the population, but perhaps even worse it will sever the eastern and western population, making it impossible for them to reconnect.
With 250 Babies Born Each Minute, How Many People Can the Earth Sustain? UN data suggests there were about a billion people in 1800, 2 billion in 1927, 5 billion in 1987 and just over 7.5 billion today. There are on average about 250 babies born every minute - more than 130 million in a year. It is projected that there will be 11 billion people by 2100. About 117 million women are believed to be "missing" in Asia and eastern Europe - due to discriminatory son preference and gender-biased sex selection.
Overpopulation is the Elephant in the Room By 2015, despite a low expected 1% growth rate, experts estimate there will be 7 billion people on the planet. By 2050, there may be as many as 10 billion people living on Earth.
As Water Shortages Grow, 'day Zero' Becomes Everyday in India Nearly 163 million people among India's population of 1.3 billion - or more than one in 10 - lack access to clean water close to their home. Almost 600 million people in India are at high risk of being unable to continue relying on surface water - including in the country's northwest and south, where much of the country's staple wheat and rice are grown. Water supply in India may fall 50% below demand by 2030.
Jim Dimmick: the Precarious Path to 2100
With Earth Day approaching, I realized that my 6-month-old grandson would be 82 in the year 2100. I wonder what kind of world we will be giving him, his children and his grandchildren.
The path from here to 2100 has many unknowns — potential for minor bumps in the road and major disasters. There are a number of disasters that could happen that would derail humanity — nuclear war, an unstoppable pandemic, human bioengineering gone astray, and geoengineering of the planet gone wrong. Clearly humanity needs to focus its collective attention on making sure that none of these major disasters happen.
Contraceptives Shortages Are Devastating Women in Kzn - the Daily Vox
Women in KwaZulu Natal have expressed concerns over shortage of injectable contraceptives from local clinics. This, after they had been turned away and told to try pharmacies or private doctors to access the contraceptives; or opt out for available alternative such as oral contraceptives, Intrauterine Contraceptives Devices (IUCDs) and Implanon.
Zandile Ngcobo, 24, uses three-month injectable contraceptive Depo-Provera as her family planning method. But on Monday, she said went to the clinic for her monthly injection but was told that there was no stock available.
Gulf Stream Current at Its Weakest in 1,600 Years, Studies Show The warm Atlantic current linked to severe and abrupt changes in the climate in the past is now at its weakest in at least 1,600 years. Such a collapse would see western Europe suffer far more extreme winters, sea levels rise fast on the eastern seaboard of the US and would disrupt vital tropical rains.
Note: this article is from 2014, but worth repeating
India's first census counted 356 million people in 1951 - one-seventh of the world's population. Nearly 9 million kids had married before age 14. The population was projected to grow by 500,000 per year. How could India feed all those people? Better to sterilize anyone with three or more kids.
Sterilization seemed simple, safe, cheap, and effective. M.C. Chagla, a former ambassador to the U.S., said, "Until we develop an oral contraceptive that works and that we can afford, we must encourage sterilization.... It must be voluntary." However, in 1976 politicians went from a policy of giving transistor radios to men who submitted to vasectomies to compulsory sterilization. The police "literally dragged people in from the fields to the vasectomy table," one medical officer told the New York Times. In all, more than 6 million people were sterilized that year, causing violent protests and stalled measures to reduce birth rates for decades. The population now is nearly 1.3 billion.
India has been more successful at reducing death rates than fertility rates. Since the sterilization policy began, growth has vastly exceeded projections. An old man stated that when he was a boy a cholera epidemic would kill up to 50 people in his village every ten years. "Now they come and vaccinate our children. I have lived here almost 70 years. The biggest change in my time has been health. We've learned how to keep from dying."
Today, programs have returned to incentives. In most Indian states women who opt for sterilization earn about $23 - almost one month's income in rural India. But in the district of Bilaspur, a sterilization procedure sickened 60 women and killed 13. Authorities first charged the doctor for failing to sterilize the sterilization instruments. But the doctor blamed "the village quacks who gave them antibiotics." Later, an Indian health official said a preliminary finding suggested that a poisonous zinc phosphate compound got mixed with the drugs, so the authorities arrested the director of a drug-making firm that supplied the clinic. However, according to USA Today, the doctor, who was trying to meet the demands of sterilization quotas mandated by local authorities, had spent only minutes on each patient, doing 83 surgeries in six hours. He is under pressure to complete 15,000 sterilizations and was recently praised for performing 50,000 laparoscopic tubectomies.
Local residents now distrust the program.Gauri Bai, 54, said he suspected his daughter-in-law "is already dead," after the 27-year-old woman fell sick. "We thought the government is running the program for the benefit of the poor, but they have cheated us. We want the guilty to be punished. They have destroyed my family. Who will take care of these little children?"
CounterSpin interview with Kinsey Hasstedt on reproductive health restrictionsMay 29, 2018, FAIR.org By: Janine Jackson
In May, President Trump proposed new restrictions on federally funded family planning by barring doctors from advising a woman pondering an abortion about where she could receive one. In response to the Trump administration's proposed changes, Kinsey Hasstedt, a senior policy manager in the Guttmacher Institute's Washington DC Office was interviewed.
Hasstedt was asked what she believes the changes would actually mean "on the ground." She said she fears that the proposals are a "revival of the domestic gag rule first proposed by President Reagan." It "would ban referral for abortion" and "require that pregnant patients be referred for prenatal services and other care related to delivery, regardless of their wishes." Patients would no longer receive "nondirective counseling.”
Hasstedt theorized that the Trump administration intends to "totally reshape the network of entities and the scope of services that have long been supported by this Title X publicly funded family planning program. They are seeking to disadvantage providers who focus on reproductive health... and in fact are opening the door to Title X funds to ideologically motivated entities that are actually unwilling or unable to provide a broad range of contraceptive-method options. These rules also promote other ideologically motivated approaches to family planning, such as abstinence until marriage, and take away the guarantee of contraceptive access for many... At the end of the day we are talking about denying women access to information and services that are necessary in their own right to self-determination.”
Interview Janine Jackson of Counterspin accused the media of "narrowly diving into this latest thing” and worries that focusing too closely on the the details might cause people to miss what's really happening. Hasstedt advised that we should all "step back” and recognize the Trump administration's "coercive agenda against individuals' reproductive health and rights.” This agenda includes "seeking to roll back affordable health coverage, undermining people's access to affordable contraceptive coverage under the ACA, trying to undercut comprehensive sex education programs, and now this most recent attack on publicly funded family planning.”
Jackson discussed the existence of an anti-abortion space on evening cable news, but nearly no pro-abortion space. She pointed out that "as the restrictions on reproductive rights go up, the sheer amount of coverage goes down, and in that silence, misinformation can grow like mildew...” Hasstedt shared the concern in that many who get "lost in the narrative are the people who rely on publicly funded planning for care.” She added, "The whole point of Title X, in the beginning, was to close the resource gap between women and couples who have more resources, and those who have less and face systemic barriers to accessing affordable and high quality care. Because everyone has the right to determine for themselves whether and when to have children... and ultimately we are jeopardizing the health and well being of millions of people, who are largely low-income, largely people of color and people who are otherwise underserved...”
In light of 20 state attorneys supporting a nationwide preliminary injunction to stop Trump, Jackson asked Hasstedt to speculate what might be next. Haastedt said we'll have to wait and "see how this network starts to shape up over the course of the next few months, to see "Which type of entities apply for Title X funding will matter” And when we see these "proposed regulations actually published in the Federal Register, if they look like this draft does, there will be mass outcry from professional medical associations, public health experts, providers, advocates, and people themselves.”
The Story Behind the Ban on ContraceptionApril 29, 2018, The Story Behind the Ban on Contraception
In 1968, Pope Paul VI went against the findings of his own Papal Birth Control Commission and rejected an opportunity to create a modern and compassionate doctrine on birth control which would appeal to its faithful.
Instead, he launched the church backwards toward staunch orthodoxy with his encyclical titled Humanae Vitae. "The Church...in urging men to the observance of the precepts of the natural law, which it interprets by its constant doctrine, teaches that each and every marital act must of necessity retain its intrinsic relationship to the procreation of human life." For the past 50 years these words have come to influence the church's stance on public health challenges that relate to sex, and have affected the way Catholics around the world view birth control.
How did the church come to reject modern contraception, and why does it continue to make it a central part of its theology? Five years before Humanae Vitae, the papal commission was examining its view on marriage and looking to update its teachings. At this time it was feared that the more liberal members of the commission would push to revisit the church's ban an "artificial" birth control that was established in the 1930 encyclical Casti Connubii. The birth control pill had been introduced and, because it used naturally occurring hormones, many conservative members were concerned that its use would be approved for Catholic couples. Instead of considering the issue, the Papal Birth Control Commission was established as a concession.
After much study, it was the commission's opinion that the prohibition of contraception was faulty and outdated. It found that in many cases it strained marriages instead of making them stronger. Contrary to the assertion of the hierarchy that natural family planning brought couples closer together, it was found that it drove them apart. Couples became obsessed with sex because of the unnatural restrictions placed upon spontaneous demonstrations of affection. Women spoke of the many roles they played as wives and of the importance of the non-procreative sexual bond to marriage.
Even though the commission overwhelmingly agreed to advise the church to change its stance on the matter, many within the church rejected the change because it would be an admission that the church had been wrong.
The church demoted the commission members and appointed 15 bishops to make a final report on the matter. The bishops were also convinced by the case for modern contraception. They argued that the interpretation of the biblical story of Onan and his spilled seed was fallible, birth control is necessary for responsible parenting, and marriage should be based on "mutual love within the totality of marriage." There was a report issued by the dissenting bishops, but its only basis for opposition was that if the church changed its view, it would have to admit that it was wrong. And if it was wrong, it would lead to questioning on all "moral matters."
Although the commission and bishops overwhelmingly advised the hierarchy to change its stance, Pope Paul ignored the recommendations. He declared that the findings were not unanimous, and that the the recommendation disagreed with previous teaching and could not be changed.
Reaction to Humanae Vitae was not favorable. Many Catholics had expected Pope Paul to rescind the ban and had already made up their minds about birth control. There was also dissent from inside the church and by the world's theologians, most of it asserting that Catholics were free to make their own decisions on the issue. The reaction was as described by Father Curran. "All the hope and enthusiasm, all the sense that things had changed and that birth control teaching could change were crushed by the document. In a sense, there was one positive outcome from the encyclical in that Catholics realized that they could disagree with the pope on non-fallible issues and still remain a good Catholic. However, the negative outcome was that it created a lot of tension regarding credibility of the church.”
In the face of much dissent and disobedience, the church refused to alter its stance, and many Catholics have made their own decisions on contraceptives, especially in developed countries. Of the sexually active Catholic women in the US, 99% have used a method of birth control other than natural family planning.
In developing countries Humanae Vitae still has an impact on health policies and foreign assistance for such. This has led to an unmet need for family planning, increased abortion, death and disability for women denied the ability to limit pregnancies, and has hurt efforts to stem the spread of HIV/AIDS. The Catholic hierarchy continues to oppose modern contraception in Africa, which has the world's lowest rate of contraceptive use. Bishops regularly mislead those in developing countries by telling them that contraception is harmful to women's health, it leads to higher levels of abortion, and that international family planning programs are western plots to destroy their society.
Some developing countries have had some success in overcoming the Catholic church. Despite its large Catholic population, Kenya has successfully promoted contraceptive use. By 2015 52% of married women were using contraceptives and it is on target to get to 60% by 2018.
In the Philippines, according to a 2014 poll, 68% of Catholics support contraceptive use, but have unmet need due to the rate of poverty. In 2017, however, the president of the Philippines issued an executive order calling for the full implementation of the Reproductive Health Law. The Catholic church responded by blocking the distribution of condoms in schools.
Over the last 50 years, the impact of Humanae Vitae has been immeasurable. Despite its existence, Catholics continue to use contraceptives, dismissing a central tenet of the church, and the divide between its doctrine and reality continues to widen. The ideology has also hampered women's health and family planning causes around the world. The need for a more modern sexual ethic is long overdue, and, in order for the church to move forward, a reexamination of Humanae Vitae is imperative.
According to a recent report by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, in 2017 the U.S. saw the fewest newborns since 1987, and the birthrate dropped for almost every group of women. In 2017 the total number of births was down 2% from 2016, and the fertility rate fell to a record low. These new numbers put the U.S. further away from a viable replacement rate, which has not been met since 1971.
Since a sharp decline in the early 1970's, the number of births in the U.S. has gradually risen. That growth however has been inconsistent with spikes and dips caused by the economy, generational size, and other factors. And, despite the rise in births, the birthrate over this time frame has shown a general decline.
The results of the report correspond with predictions the Census Bureau and others have been making for years. After decades of relatively high fertility rates, the U.S. must now depend on immigration for population growth.
In the report, teens (15-19 years) saw the biggest drop at 7% from the year before. And, the only group not to see a decline was women between the ages of 40 and 44. They saw an increase of 2% from 2016. The U.S. also experienced rises in preterm birthrate, low birth weight rate, and cesarean delivery rate in 2017.
Humans Less Than 1% of Life on Earth, but Have Destroyed Half of Its Plants, More Than 80% of All MammalsMay 22, 2018, Common Dreams By: Jessica Corbett
According to a recent study by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), human beings only make up 0.01% of the Earth's biomass, however their impact has been huge. The study showed that the planet's biomass is mostly plants (82%), followed by bacteria (13%), and everything else (including 7.6 million humans) accounts for the remaining 5%.
The rise of human civilization has resulted in the destruction of 83% of wild mammals, 80% of marine animals, 50% of plants, and 15% of fish. The study notes that "over the relatively short span of human history, major innovations, such as the domestication of livestock, adoption of an agricultural lifestyle, and the Industrial Revolution, have increased the impact of human population dramatically and have had radical ecological effects."
Furthermore, the study found that the human diet and unsustainable lifestyles have resulted in human beings and livestock accounting for 96% of the mammalian species. Only 4% of mammals are now considered to be wild.
Ron Milo, a professor at the Weizmann Institute of Science, led the study and called the results "staggering." He commented that "our dietary choices have a vast effect on the habitats of animals, plants, and other organisms." He also added, "I would hope people would take this (work) as part of their worldview of how they consume. I would hope this gives people a perspective on the very dominant role that humanity now plays on Earth."
Balancing the existence of humanity and nature is a challenge. With worldwide population growth expected to grow to 10 billion by 2050, that balance harder will be more difficult to achieve. Attaining a healthy population number is key and may only be possible by finding the political and societal will.
Supporting family planning globally and locally is imperative. In developing regions, approximately 214 million women want to delay or avoid pregnancy but are without a modern contraceptive. Additionally, in these same regions, 43% of pregnancies are unplanned. If family planning services were expanded to improve and address all women's needs for modern contraceptive the cost would be relatively low - an increase from a $6.3 billion currently to $12.1 billion annually.
As an example, Uganda is a developing country that is in dire need of expanded family planning services. It is one of the fastest growing countries with its current population of 37 million growing to a projected 100 million by 2050. One in four girls between the ages of 15 and 19 is pregnant or has already given birth, and 75% of the population is under the age of 30. Education, outreach, and access to services are necessary and are currently being advocated for and offered by Reproductive Health Uganda.
In the US 45% of pregnancies are unplanned. However, in Colorado, the Colorado Family Planning Initiative provides low or no cost long-acting reversible contraceptives to low-income women, especially teens. By doing this, teen pregnancies were nearly cut in half in their state.
Family planning is often an overlooked path forward to deal with climate change. It has been shown that regions of high population growth, coupled with a high unmet need for family planning, frequently overlap with regions that are most vulnerable to climate change.
When women's needs for family planning are met, their families are healthier, there is a reduced household demand on resources, and women have more time to devote to climate adaptation-related activities. Increasingly, though, climate researchers and activists are making the connection. It has been estimated that, just by educating girls and supporting family planning alone, emissions could be reduced by 120 gigatons of CO2-equivalent by 2050.
Biodiversity can also be impacted by family planning. Recently the World Wildlife Fund found that the world's forests could lose more than half of their plant species by the end of the century. Indonesia has one of the highest deforestation rates in the world and, although its government has invested in education and awareness of contraceptives, its population is still increasing and is projected to be the world's seventh largest country by 2050. Today there are more that 1.5 billion people living in biodiversity endangered areas.
New thinking about conservation, climate change, and communities is needed. One new model known as Population, Health, and Environment (PHE) is an integrated solution linking family planning, public health and conservation that recognizes the interconnectiveness of people and their local environment. Humanity must stop living beyond the carrying capacity of Earth.
To help in this cause, readers are encouraged to become informed about policies that empower women, call on elected representatives to stop cuts on family planning assistance internationally and locally, urge congressional representatives to co-sponsor the Global Health, Empowerment, and Rights Act and the Women and Climate Change Act of 2018, protest cuts to environmental protections, involve men in family planning programs, and vote.
Last month it was announced that not a single calf was born to the remaining 450 or so Northern Atlantic right whales putting them in jeopardy of almost certain extinction. Similarly, just the month before, the sole remaining male northern white rhino died, all but insuring the end of his species as well. Both will join the ranks of the "nevermore" along with scads of other species lost to extinction just within our generation. And this trend is quickening. In fact we are currently losing species at a pace somewhere around 1,000 times the natural "background" extinction rate, which is projected to bring about the fate of upwards of 50% of all life forms by 2100. And this is all happening because of climate change, oceanic acidification, our 1% annual usurpation of wild habitat, and plain old over-fishing/over-hunting. In other words: all because of us.
Make no mistake: this "Mass Extinction Event" is the greatest challenge we will ever confront, and yet the primary driver behind it, as well as most of our societal problems - homelessness, desperate migrations, malnutrition, famine, war and genocide, to name a few - is a phenomenon so divisive, so volatile, so taboo it is rarely if ever uttered: human overpopulation.
How do we know there are too many people? Consider the World Wildlife Fund's 2014 Report showing wildlife numbers have plummeted 56% just since 1970, all while our human population has more than doubled during that same period. Might there be a correlation? Of course there is.
Overpopulation deniers will argue that today's 2.5-ish birthrate is half what it was even as recently as 1950. True. Problem is we have three times as many people giving birth today, meaning we are adding to our numbers (by some 220,000 per day) faster than ever and are on pace to hit 9.6 billion by 2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100. All this wouldn't be a problem if our current 7.6 billion didn't already consume about 50% more resources than the Earth can sustainably provide.
Exacerbating matters our per capita consumption is still on the rise, especially as the Developing World grows evermore industrialized and meat becomes an ever-larger portion of the global diet. As a result of this "double whammy" of rising population and consumption rates we can expect global food needs to increase 50% and energy needs to double by 2100, and all while arable land shrinks by 30%.
Given these bleak prospects, why is overpopulation such a forbidden topic? Why isn't it ever covered by the "mainstream media," those snarky cable networks, or even NPR and PBS? Why do campaign cycles come and go with neither party ever mentioning it? And, most shockingly, why do environmental and humanitarian organizations purposely eschew the subject entirely, even though their otherwise noble efforts are utterly futile in the presence of unfettered growth?
One reason of course is its spurious association with eugenics; perhaps relevant in bygone eras but now just an anachronistic holdover that nevertheless renders it the veritable "third rail" of public discourse. Another reason has to do with the premature prognostications by Malthus, Ehrlich, and others who, without the benefit of knowing the "Green Revolution” would temporarily enable the planet to feed an additional 3 billion, miscalculated that our epoch would be engulfed in global famine by now. Although that hasn't happen - yet - it didn't stop their baby being tossed out with the bathwater.
But there is still another reason the subject is strictly taboo; one h-u-u-u-g-e reason: "It's the economy, stupid.” To wit: It's somehow become a veritable act of sacrilege to discuss the prudence of reducing our numbers primarily because our antiquated economic system is perceived to be dependent upon unabated growth, even as common sense tells us that an indefinitely expanding economy on a finite planet is not only implausible but also suicidal in the broadest sense of the word.
Last year, in an effort to publicize the threats we face, an unprecedented number of scientists (15,364) from an unprecedented number of nations (184) lent both their signatures and reputations to a paper entitled, "World Scientists' Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice” (BioScience, 1 December 2017). This was done as a desperate, clarion warning that we are quickly driving our lovely planet to Hell in a hand basket unless we act decisively to reduce our consumption, curb greenhouse gas emissions, and, most importantly, reverse our rampant growth.
So what is Earth's maximum sustainable carrying capacity? Albeit a much debated number subject to countless variables, it nonetheless pencils out to somewhere around 2 billion at today's consumption rates. But with us on pace to hurdle past 8 billion by 2025, how can we possibly hope to reverse this trend? Thankfully the math is actually quite simple: just as we quadrupled our population over the last century we can eventually whittle it back down to a sustainable number by lowering the global birthrate to somewhere below the 2.1 child "replacement” rate. And we can accomplish this by making safe and affordable contraception available to all, raising women's education levels, and by voluntarily delaying procreation and limiting ourselves to just 2 children. If our stated goals of protecting the environment and making a better world for our progeny are sincere we have to summon the courage to publicly call out the single greatest threat to both - human overpopulation.
Just 2 kids, just 2 billion; we can live with that.
Robert P. Johnson is author of Thirteen Moons: A Year in the Wilderness and The Culling, and a collaborator on "World Scientists' Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice.” Raised in Oakland, he now lives in Santa Barbara with his "just 2” children.
Currently women have almost a dozen birth control options and bear the greatest responsibility when it comes to contraception while men have only have two options, the condom and vasectomy.
New clinical trials may signal a change in birth control as we know it. Pills, gels, and injections are some of the methods being researched as viable male contraceptive options. The market for male contraception is projected to be $1 billion dollars by 2024, and, targeting men may be an effective new way to reduce the world's unplanned pregnancy problem - currently 45% of the pregnancies in the US alone are not planned.
In the 60's the birth control pill started a sexual revolution that empowered women and changed society. College enrollment rose by 20% for those who had access to the pill, and one-third of the wage gains women have made since are due to its creation. Some speculate that because women endure the physical and social risks when a birth control method fails, they may find it difficult to relinquish control of pregnancy prevention. Others believe that women will welcome the additional protection.
According to surveys, 50% of males would use their own form of contraception, with a daily pill being the most desirable method. Most of the research centers around hormonal options (gels, pills, and injections) which suppress sperm production. However, associated side effects may be a major deterrent. Will a healthy person be willing to take a medication, and suffer potential side effects, to prevent an outcome from happening to another person?
Reversible, non-hormonal options that block sperm have recently gained traction. In the US the Parsemus Foundation created Vasalgel, a polymer gel that is injected into the vas deferens and blocks sperm from escaping. Monkey trials have shown it to be effective, and clinical trials in humans may begin as soon as 2019. Contraline, a start-up in Virginia, is also currently working on a similar sperm blocking method.
Recently, a new pill for men is being tested: dimethandrolone undecanoate, or DMAU, which lowers certain hormones like testosterone that are required for sperm production. The small study found that the once-daily pill appeared safe, and among men who took the highest dose, it was able to suppress hormones needed for sperm development to extremely low levels with no serious side effects. The men didn't experience serious side effects, however, because DMAU mimics testosterone throughout the body. Eight of the men taking the drug reported decreased libido and five men taking the drug reported acne. The researchers plan to test the effects of the pill on another 100 men before moving on to a longer trial with couples.
Another option in the works is a gel contraceptive. Researchers say gels get absorbed into the skin and stay in the bloodstream longer than pill versions so far. The gel trial will require men to rub the gel onto their upper arms and shoulders once a day. The gel contains a synthetic progestin called nestorone-which blocks the testes from making enough testosterone to produce sperm-and a synthetic testosterone, which will counteract subsequent hormonal imbalances.
This method leaves experts with more questions on its efficacy.May 8, 2018, Daily Nation By: Angela Oketch
Some women of Turkana County in Kenya are turning to goat oil as a means of contraception and swear by its effectiveness. The average woman there gives birth to seven children on average, and only 10% of women (15-49 years) use modern birth control. Reasons given for the low usage are: opposition to contraceptives by husbands or partners, perceived religious prohibition, and fear of side effects..
One woman, now 50 years old, never used contraceptives because, as a fifteen year old, her mother-in-law told her if she ever used government family planning methods, she would never have a baby when she was ready. The chemicals in birth control would destroy her womb, she was warned. Her husband, a pastoralist, would leave for long periods, tending to herds and seeking pastures, but when he returned their intimacy would result in a new pregnancy. She gave birth to five children, having one right after the other. When her husband left, it was her sole responsibility to care for her growing family. With each pregnancy, that burden grew. At the age of 38 she turned to goat cream.
Scientists have not confirmed the goat cream claims of the Turkana woman. One doctor thought that, because the goal oil is not stored correctly, bacteria might grow in it and, when applied, it destroys the fallopian tubes.
To prepare the cream, goat milk is put in a gourd and stored untouched for four nights. On the fifth day the cream is boiled and cooled. The naked woman then puts four drops in her mouth. Swirling the container of cream around her body, she chants "Don't give me a child, shut my womb." Then she puts the cream on her hair and body. The cream is then mixed with donkey feces and stored in the goat's shed untouched for four days.
Many men of Turkana are adamantly against birth control and will not allow their wives or partners to use it. Children are seen as a source of wealth, and men want as many children as they can have. Some Turkana women are forced to go behind their husbands back to use birth control.
As a result, Turkana's birth rate is 47.9 births for every 1,000, the eighth highest.
In Kenya 18% of married women are considered to have an unmet need for contraceptives. Kenya wants to raise the number of women of reproductive age using contraceptives to 66% by 2030 and to 70% by 2050. Josephine Kibaru-Mbae, director general of the National Council for Population and Development, reports that Kenya is likely to meet its 2020 target of 58% by this year. Public awareness and education were the keys to its early achievement of its goal.
By the end of the fossil fuel era, the earth might be able to sustain only 2 billion people, according to Cornell University ecologist David Pimentel and colleagues. With about 7.5 billion humans on the planet right now, it seems counterintuitive that there is nearly 4 times the sustainable population now living on the planet. Does that not mean that Pimentel and others who reach similar conclusions about the human prospect are wrong? Critics call him and others like him neo-Malthusians, those who cry wolf about the population problem ignoring the resilience of human society. How could we have more than the "sustainable" human population living on earth?
Suppose your car's fuel efficiency is 30 miles to the gallon, you have exactly one gallon of gas in the tank, and 50 miles to the next gas station. If you increase your speed, you run out of gasoline even sooner. Likewise, we can have a larger population than the planet can support by using resources faster in the short run than they can be replenished in the long run. Those resources will one day be depleted and fewer people will inhabit the earth. Scientific evidence suggests that is exactly what 21st Century humans are doing, living beyond the means of the planet.
Johan Rockstrom and a list of prominent scientists estimated the various biophysical (or planetary) "boundaries" beyond which humans could not push the planet. Several of these boundaries are close or have already been surpassed. The most obvious potential constraint on human survival is global climate change, but Rockstrom shows that there are even more pressing concerns for us, including biodiversity loss and disruption of the global nitrogen cycle.
Even if we are not sure the sustainable size of the human population is 2 billion or a little more or a little less, the scientific evidence that continuing growth beyond 7.5 billion, coupled with the legitimate aspirations of many of these people for a more prosperous life, is not sustainable. We need to end the growth in human numbers and in high-consumption life styles that began with the Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th Century.
De-growth will happen. Will it happen catastrophically (by disease, famine, war, extreme climate events, etc.) or by reasoned human effort, sustainable de-growth?
With growth being the dominant paradigm over the last 70 years, it is hard to imagine de-growth. De-growth seems to be bad then. Think of the language we use: recession, downturn, slump, depression. Depressing, isn't it? What can we do to begin to reimage de-growth as something that would be challenging, but still good? Is de-growth something that we can think of as good, uplifting, something we could strive for?
Post-World War II economics is based on the premise that human wellbeing is a function of consumption. More consumption results in more wellbeing. Since economists are loath to urge redistribution of wealth and income, the only way to get more consumption is economic growth. The saying goes, "a rising tide lifts all boats." And that worked for some humans as long as we were not pushing up against the biophysical boundaries of the planet.
Fred Polak, in his classic book The Image of the Future, suggested that imagination is a first step to making difficult social change. A good way to imagine a de-growth future is to look for places on the planet where the prospect of de-growth is nearer. Japan is one such place that can provide both exemplars and cautionary tales about a future where both the number of humans and per capita consumption decline. The Japanese case shows both opportunities and risks.
Circumstances in Japan give us some hints about how we might go about de-growth without catastrophe. Japan's total fertility rate is 1.46, and Japan is now facing population decline.
Japan is experiencing a depopulation of rural communities as it undergoes demographic change. Not only are there fewer young people, but more of those young people are moving to cities. The result is that rural homes are being abandoned and rural communities are shrinking. Typically, governments dealing with rural decline in industrialized societies would develop programming for rural economic development. An alternative suggested by the Japanese case is to use these abandoned properties as a starting point for rewilding, the process of removing human domination of the landscape and allowing it to return to natural processes. De-growth is an opportunity to reduce the human foot print on the planet - such a reduction is inherent to the de-growth idea.
Japan also provides a good example of what not to do as part of sustainable de-growth. Japan's government debt is well over 200% of Gross Domestic Product and growing. The expectation is that the future will experience economic growth and future generations will be able to pay that debt from increasing future economic activity. De-growth assumes that economies will shrink from both lower populations and reduced consumption of goods and services (wellbeing will come more from intangibles than from ever more consumption). So sustainable de-growth will be preceded by the present paying for its own consumption instead of assuming that we can borrow today and the future will pay the costs.
Kenyan men from the 'Form Ni Gani Kenya' group took to the streets to make reproductive health available to all Kenyans. The group stuffed their shirts to look pregnant and handed out digitally created photos of pregnant men.
M. Amal Mohamed, a spokeswoman, urged all men from 18 to 35 to advocate for their reproductive health rights. Mohamed warned against turning a blind eye to sexual activity by teens. She stressed that access to reproductive health services without encouraging sexual activity amongst teens was the goal of the campaign. She also said that those already pregnant need to be empowered with correct information and educational opportunities.